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See Also See Also: Object Configuration, Object Inheritance

Introduction

This documentation attempts to explain how you can exploit the (somewhat) hidden features of template-based object definitions to save your sanity. How so, you ask? Several types of objects allow you to specify multiple host names and/or hostgroup names in definitions, allowing you to "copy" the object defintion to multiple hosts or services. I'll cover each type of object that supports these features seperately. For starters, the object types which support this time-saving feature are as follows:

Object types that are not listed above (i.e. timeperiods, commands, etc.) do not support the features I'm about to describe.

Regular Expression Matching

The examples I give below use "standard" matching of object names and *require* use_regexp_matching to be *disabled*.

If you wish, you can enable regular expression matching for object names by using the use_regexp_matching config option. By default, regular expression matching will only be used in object names that contain *, ?, +, or \.. If you want regular expression matching to be used on all object names, enable the use_true_regexp_matching config option. Regular expressions can be used in any of the fields used in the examples below (host names, hostgroup names, service names, and servicegroup names).

Note: Be careful when enabling regular expression matching - you may have to change your config file, since some directives that you might not want to be interpreted as a regular expression might be. Any problems should become evident once you verify your configuration.

Service Definitions

Multiple Hosts

If you want to create identical services that are assigned to multiple hosts, you can specify multiple hosts in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a service called SOMESERVICE on hosts HOST1 through HOSTN. All the instances of the SOMESERVICE service would be identical (i.e. have the same check command, max check attempts, notification period, etc.).

define service {
    host_name                 HOST1,HOST2,HOST3,...,HOSTN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other service directives ...
}
All Hosts In Multiple Hostgroups

If you want to create identical services that are assigned to all hosts in one or more hostgroups, you can do so by creating a single service definition. The hostgroup_name directive allows you to specify the name of one or more hostgroups that the service should be created for. The definition below would create a service called SOMESERVICE on all hosts that are members of hostgroups HOSTGROUP1 through HOSTGROUPN. All the instances of the SOMESERVICE service would be identical (i.e. have the same check command, max check attempts, notification period, etc.).

define service {
    hostgroup_name            HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,...,HOSTGROUPN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other service directives ...
}
All Hosts

If you want to create identical services that are assigned to all hosts that are defined in your configuration files, you can use a wildcard in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a service called SOMESERVICE on all hosts that are defined in your configuration files. All the instances of the SOMESERVICE service would be identical (i.e. have the same check command, max check attempts, notification period, etc.).

define service {
    host_name                 *
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other service directives ...
}
Excluding Hosts

If you want to create identical services on numerous hosts or hostgroups, but would like to exclude some hosts from the definition, this can be accomplished by preceding the host or hostgroup with a ! symbol.

define service {
    host_name                 HOST1,HOST2,!HOST3,!HOST4,...,HOSTN
    hostgroup_name            HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,!HOSTGROUP3,!HOSTGROUP4,...,HOSTGROUPN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other service directives ...
}

Service Escalation Definitions

Multiple Hosts

If you want to create service escalations for services of the same name/description that are assigned to multiple hosts, you can specify multiple hosts in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a service escalation for services called SOMESERVICE on hosts HOST1 through HOSTN. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define serviceescalation {
    host_name                 HOST1,HOST2,HOST3,...,HOSTN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Hosts In Multiple Hostgroups

If you want to create service escalations for services of the same name/description that are assigned to all hosts in in one or more hostgroups, you can do use the hostgroup_name directive. The definition below would create a service escalation for services called SOMESERVICE on all hosts that are members of hostgroups HOSTGROUP1 through HOSTGROUPN. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define serviceescalation {
    hostgroup_name            HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,...,HOSTGROUPN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Hosts

If you want to create identical service escalations for services of the same name/description that are assigned to all hosts that are defined in your configuration files, you can use a wildcard in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a service escalation for all services called SOMESERVICE on all hosts that are defined in your configuration files. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define serviceescalation {
    host_name                 *
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other escalation directives ...
}
Excluding Hosts

If you want to create identical services escalations for services on numerous hosts or hostgroups, but would like to exclude some hosts from the definition, this can be accomplished by preceding the host or hostgroup with a ! symbol.

define serviceescalation {
    host_name                 HOST1,HOST2,!HOST3,!HOST4,...,HOSTN
    hostgroup_name            HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,!HOSTGROUP3,!HOSTGROUP4,...,HOSTGROUPN
    service_description       SOMESERVICE
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Services On Same Host

If you want to create service escalations for all services assigned to a particular host, you can use a wildcard in the service_description directive. The definition below would create a service escalation for all services on host HOST1. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

If you feel like being particularly adventurous, you can specify a wildcard in both the host_name and service_description directives. Doing so would create a service escalation for all services that you've defined in your configuration files.

define serviceescalation {
    host_name                 HOST1
    service_description       *
    other escalation directives ...
}
Multiple Services On Same Host

If you want to create service escalations for all multiple services assigned to a particular host, you can use a specify more than one service description in the service_description directive. The definition below would create a service escalation for services SERVICE1 through SERVICEN on host HOST1. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define serviceescalation {
    host_name                 HOST1
    service_description       SERVICE1,SERVICE2,...,SERVICEN
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Services In Multiple Servicegroups

If you want to create service escalations for all services that belong in one or more servicegroups, you can do use the servicegroup_name directive. The definition below would create service escalations for all services that are members of servicegroups SERVICEGROUP1 through SERVICEGROUPN. All the instances of the service escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define serviceescalation {
    servicegroup_name         SERVICEGROUP1,SERVICEGROUP2,...,SERVICEGROUPN
    other escalation directives ...
}

Service Dependency Definitions

Multiple Hosts

If you want to create service dependencies for services of the same name/description that are assigned to multiple hosts, you can specify multiple hosts in the host_name and or dependent_host_name directives. In the example below, service SERVICE2 on hosts HOST3 and HOST4 would be dependent on service SERVICE1 on hosts HOST1 and HOST2. All the instances of the service dependencies would be identical except for the host names (i.e. have the same notification failure criteria, etc.).

define servicedependency {
    host_name                         HOST1,HOST2
    service_description               SERVICE1
    dependent_host_name               HOST3,HOST4
    dependent_service_description     SERVICE2
    other dependency directives ...
}
All Hosts In Multiple Hostgroups

If you want to create service dependencies for services of the same name/description that are assigned to all hosts in in one or more hostgroups, you can do use the hostgroup_name and/or dependent_hostgroup_name directives. In the example below, service SERVICE2 on all hosts in hostgroups HOSTGROUP3 and HOSTGROUP4 would be dependent on service SERVICE1 on all hosts in hostgroups HOSTGROUP1 and HOSTGROUP2. Assuming there were five hosts in each of the hostgroups, this definition would be equivalent to creating 100 single service dependency definitions! All the instances of the service dependency would be identical except for the host names (i.e. have the same notification failure criteria, etc.).

define servicedependency {
    hostgroup_name                    HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2
    service_description               SERVICE1
    dependent_hostgroup_name          HOSTGROUP3,HOSTGROUP4
    dependent_service_description     SERVICE2
    other dependency directives ...
}
All Services On A Host

If you want to create service dependencies for all services assigned to a particular host, you can use a wildcard in the service_description and/or dependent_service_description directives. In the example below, all services on host HOST2 would be dependent on all services on host HOST1. All the instances of the service dependencies would be identical (i.e. have the same notification failure criteria, etc.).

define servicedependency {
    host_name                         HOST1
    service_description               *
    dependent_host_name               HOST2
    dependent_service_description     *
    other dependency directives ...
}
Multiple Services On A Host

If you want to create service dependencies for multiple services assigned to a particular host, you can specify more than one service description in the service_description and/or dependent_service_description directives as follows:

define servicedependency {
    host_name                         HOST1
    service_description               SERVICE1,SERVICE2,...,SERVICEN
    dependent_host_name               HOST2
    dependent_service_description     SERVICE1,SERVICE2,...,SERVICEN
    other dependency directives ...
}
All Services In Multiple Servicegroups

If you want to create service dependencies for all services that belong in one or more servicegroups, you can do use the servicegroup_name and/or dependent_servicegroup_name directive as follows:

define servicedependency {
    servicegroup_name                 SERVICEGROUP1,SERVICEGROUP2,...,SERVICEGROUPN
    dependent_servicegroup_name       SERVICEGROUP3,SERVICEGROUP4,...SERVICEGROUPN
    other dependency directives ...
}
Same Host Dependencies

If you want to create service dependencies for multiple services that are dependent on services on the same host, leave the dependent_host_name and dependent_hostgroup_name directives empty. The example below assumes that hosts HOST1 and HOST2 have at least the following four services associated with them: SERVICE1, SERVICE2, SERVICE3, and SERVICE4. In this example, SERVICE3 and SERVICE4 on HOST1 will be dependent on both SERVICE1 and SERVICE2 on HOST1. Similiarly, SERVICE3 and SERVICE4 on HOST2 will be dependent on both SERVICE1 and SERVICE2 on HOST2.

define servicedependency 
    host_name                         HOST1,HOST2
    service_description               SERVICE1,SERVICE2
    dependent_service_description     SERVICE3,SERVICE4
    other dependency directives ...
}
Same Host Dependencies With Servicegroups

If you want to create service dependencies for all services that belong in one or more servicegroups on a service on the same host running the dependent service, leave the host_name and hostgroup_name directives empty. The example below assumes that hosts running services that belong in SERVICEGROUP1 and SERVICEGROUP2 have the following service associated with them: SERVICE1. In this example, all services that belong in SERVICEGROUP1 and SERVICEGROUP2 will be dependent on SERVICE1 on the same host running the dependent service.

define servicedependency {
    service_description               SERVICE1
    dependent_servicegroup_name       SERVICEGROUP1,SERVICEGROUP2
    other dependency directives ...
}

Host Escalation Definitions

Multiple Hosts

If you want to create host escalations for multiple hosts, you can specify multiple hosts in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a host escalation for hosts HOST1 through HOSTN. All the instances of the host escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define hostescalation {
    host_name             HOST1,HOST2,HOST3,...,HOSTN
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Hosts In Multiple Hostgroups

If you want to create host escalations for all hosts in in one or more hostgroups, you can do use the hostgroup_name directive. The definition below would create a host escalation on all hosts that are members of hostgroups HOSTGROUP1 through HOSTGROUPN. All the instances of the host escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define hostescalation {
    hostgroup_name        HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,...,HOSTGROUPN
    other escalation directives ...
}
All Hosts

If you want to create identical host escalations for all hosts that are defined in your configuration files, you can use a wildcard in the host_name directive. The definition below would create a hosts escalation for all hosts that are defined in your configuration files. All the instances of the host escalation would be identical (i.e. have the same contact groups, notification interval, etc.).

define hostescalation {
    host_name             *
    other escalation directives ...
}
Excluding Hosts

If you want to create identical host escalations on numerous hosts or hostgroups, but would like to exclude some hosts from the definition, this can be accomplished by preceding the host or hostgroup with a ! symbol.

define hostescalation {
    host_name             HOST1,HOST2,!HOST3,!HOST4,...,HOSTN
    hostgroup_name        HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2,!HOSTGROUP3,!HOSTGROUP4,...,HOSTGROUPN
    other escalation directives ...
}

Host Dependency Definitions

Multiple Hosts

If you want to create host dependencies for multiple hosts, you can specify multiple hosts in the host_name and/or dependent_host_name directives. The definition below would be equivalent to creating six seperate host dependencies. In the example above, hosts HOST3, HOST4 and HOST5 would be dependent upon both HOST1 and HOST2. All the instances of the host dependencies would be identical except for the host names (i.e. have the same notification failure criteria, etc.).

define hostdependency {
    host_name                 HOST1,HOST2
    dependent_host_name       HOST3,HOST4,HOST5
    other dependency directives ...
}
All Hosts In Multiple Hostgroups

If you want to create host escalations for all hosts in in one or more hostgroups, you can do use the hostgroup_name and /or dependent_hostgroup_name directives. In the example below, all hosts in hostgroups HOSTGROUP3 and HOSTGROUP4 would be dependent on all hosts in hostgroups HOSTGROUP1 and HOSTGROUP2. All the instances of the host dependencies would be identical except for host names (i.e. have the same notification failure criteria, etc.).

define hostdependency {
    hostgroup_name            HOSTGROUP1,HOSTGROUP2
    dependent_hostgroup_name  HOSTGROUP3,HOSTGROUP4
    other dependency directives ...
}

Host Groups

All Hosts

If you want to create a hostgroup that has all hosts that are defined in your configuration files as members, you can use a wildcard in the members directive. The definition below would create a hostgroup called HOSTGROUP1 that has all hosts that are defined in your configuration files as members.

define hostgroup {
    hostgroup_name       HOSTGROUP1
    members              *
    other hostgroup directives ...
}